Known three main types of C. diphtheriae, the type gravis, intermedius, and mythic, but in the light of this result is actually antigenicity species are heterogeneous and have many types of serologic.
Diphtheria is transmitted through contact with patients or career by way of droplets. dust can be a means of transmission (vehicles of transmission). Diphtheria skin, although rarely discussed, holds an important role in epidemiological.
Diphtheria is spread widely throughout the world. The incidence decreased significantly after World War II, after the use of diphtheria toxoid. Similarly, there is decreased mortality rates ranging from 5-10%. Socio-economic factors, overcrowding, poor nutrition, limited health facilities is an important factor in the occurrence of this disease.
Symptoms and signs
- Resemble a common cold with mild cold symptoms with no or mild systemic symptoms.
- Nasal secretions and then gradually became serosanguinous mukopurulen causes blisters on the nares and upper lip.
- White membrane on the septum nasi.
- Anorexia, malaise, mild fever, and painful swallowing.
- Within 1-2 days later arise membrane attached, white-gray to close the tonsils and pharyngeal wall, extending to the uvula and soft palate and Molle or down to the larynx and trachea, which bleed easily.
- Cervical and submandibular lymphadenitis, lymphadenitis occurs when the soft tissue edema along with a wide neck, arising bullneck.
- In severe cases, respiratory failure may occur.
- Molle palate paralysis can occur, either uni or bilateral, accompanied by difficulty swallowing and regurgitation.
- Clinical symptoms difficult to distinguish from other types of infectious croups like a wheezing sound, progressive stridor, hoarseness, and dry cough
- If there is an extension of the pharyngeal diphtheria, the symptoms that seemed a mixture of symptoms of obstruction and toxemia.
- Diphtheria skin, vulvovaginal, conjunctiva, and ears.
In general, patients should be isolated until the acute period is exceeded (usually up to 2-3 weeks), Specific treatment, patients are given anti-diphtheria antitoxin serum (ADS) given immediately after diagnosis of diphtheria was made.
Antibiotics (procaine penisislin), is given to eradicate germs. Steroids given when there are symptoms of upper airway obstruction (with or without bullneck) or if there is myocarditis. Corticosteroids are not useful for preventing myocarditis.
There are plants that can be used to treat diphtheria namely:
100 grams of tubers from Lote Upas (Merremia mammosa (Lour.) Hall.f.) washed and mashed, squeezed and taken airnya1 small glass. Used to gargle-gargle in the throat for 23 minutes, then swallowed.