Measles is an acute viral disease caused by measles virus. The disease is highly infectious, contagious early prodromal period until approximately 4 days after appearance of rash. Infection is spread through the air (airborne).
The measles virus is transmitted through droplet infection through the air, sticking and breed in nasopharyngeal epithelium. Three days after the invasion, replication and colonization continues in the regional lymph nodes and viremia occurs first. The virus spreads on all the reticuloendothelial system and viremia following the second after 5-7 days of initial infection. The existence of giant cells and inflammatory processes are the basis peribronchial pathological rash and pulmonary infiltrates. There is also a Similarly, edema, and bleeding dam which spread to the brain. Colonization and the spread of skin epithelium and cause coughing, runny nose, red eyes (3 C: coryza, cough and conjuctivitis) and fever that grew high. Symptoms of fever, cough, runny nose grew heavy and on day 10 after initial infection the rash starts makulopapuler kemerahan.Virus color can also breed in the central nervous system and cause symptoms encefalitis clinic. After a period in the fall and hipervaskularisasi konvelesen subside and caused a rash became increasingly dark, turning into desquamasi and hyperpigmentation. This process is because at first there is bleeding perivaskuler and lymphocyte infiltration.
Clinical symptoms of Measles
- The heat increased and peaked at day 4-5, when the rash came out
- Coryza happened is difficult to distinguish from severe common cold. Improved rapidly when the heat decreases.
- Conjunctivitis is characterized by red eye conjunctiva accompanied by inflammation accompanied with photophobia complaint.
- Cough is due to inflammation in the airway epithelium, reaching a peak at the time of eruption and disappeared after a few weeks.
- The appearance of Koplik's spots usually at about 2 days before the appearance of rash (days 3-4) and quickly disappeared after a few hours or days. Koplik's spots is a collection of white dots on a red bucal epithelial area which is a sign that patognomonik clinics for measles.
- Makulopapular originally reddish colored rash. The rash appears first on the hairline and forehead, and behind the ears, spreads to the peripheral to the foot. Rash generally embrace each other so that in the face and chest became confluent. The rash is distinguished by a rash of rubella discrete and did not experience desquamasi. Palms of the hands and feet do not experience desquamasi.
Diagnosis is based on the anamnesis and physical examination, and serologic examination or positive virologik namely when there is continuous high fever 38.50 C or more accompanied by a cough, runny nose, pain in swallowing, red eye and glare when hit light (photophobia), often followed by diarrhea . On day 4-5 of fever, skin rashes, preceded by rising temperatures are higher than the original. At this time children can experience a febrile seizure. When the rash appeared, cough and diarrhea got worse so that the child has difficulty breathing or dehydration.
Clinical symptoms occur after a period of 10-12 days shoot, consisting of three stages:
Prodromal stage, lasting 2-4 days, characterized by fever followed by cough, runny nose, red farings, swallowing pain, stomatitis, and conjunctivitis. Signs patognomonik emergence enantema cheek mucosa in front of molar three called Koplik spots.
Eruption stage, marked by the emergence of makulo-papular rash which lasted for 5-6 days. The emergence of the rash starts from hairline behind the ears, then spreads to the face, neck, and finally to the extremities.
Stadium healing (konvalesens), after 3 days rash disappeared gradually in order of occurrence. Blackish skin rash and peeling that will disappear after 1-2 weeks.
It is important to determine the nutritional status of patients, to be aware of the occurrence of complications. Malnutrition is a risk of serious complications.
Treatment of Measles is supportive, consisting of:
- Providing adequate fluid
- Appropriate calorie and food type which is adjusted to the level of awareness and presence of complications
- Nutritional supplements
- Antibiotics are given if secondary infection occurs
- Anti-convulsive seizures in the event
- Giving vitamin A.
Plants that can be used to treat measles:
- Wash 25 grams of leaves Biduri Biduri, Calotropis gigantea [Willd.] Dryand.ex WTAit, 25 grams of leaf Java acidic (Tamarindus indica, Linn.), And 25 grams of turmeric. Mashed, plus one cup of cooking water and a tablespoon of honey, and stir until blended. Furthermore, the decoction is filtered and water was drunk. This treatment is done twice a day.
- 5 grams of flowers of the Clove - Syzygium aromaticum, (Linn.) Merr was dried, soaked in 1 cup of water during the night one night, drunk little by little.