Syphilis is caused by Treponema pallidum. Treponema pallidum Spirochaeta one of those spiral-shaped with a length of between 5-20 microns and a width from 0.1 to 0.2 microns, easily seen with a dark field microscope, it looks like a spiral that can perform movements such as rotation. These organisms are anaerobic, easily turned off by the soap, oxygen, sapranin, even by distilled water. In the blood that is stored in the refrigerator Treponema pallidum will die within three days but can be transmitted through blood transfusion using fresh.
The underlying nature of the virulence of Treponema pallidum has not been understood more, there is no sign that these germs are toksigenik, because in the cell wall was not found exotoxin or endotoxin. Although the primary lesion is found in many bacteria but not found a fairly extensive tissue damage because most of the germs that are outside the cells will be killed by the phagocytes. But there are a small number of Treponema that can survive in macrophages and other cells in non-phagocytes, such as endothelial cells and fibroblasts. This may be a clue why the Treponema pallidum can survive in the human body in a long time, namely during the asymptomatic period are characteristic of syphilis. Invasive properties of Treponema helps extend the life of the bacteria in the human body.
Syphilis is a chronic granulomatous disease in which the long course of their illness. Lesions in the late stage may not appear for 30 years after the first infection. On syphilis consists of three stages namely primary stage, secondary and tertiary. These three stages are separated by an asymptomatic period, the period of 3-4 weeks shoots a localized primary lesion appears to be healed after 2-6 weeks. This stage is followed by a secondary stage, lesions are found throughout the body or generalized wound is healed within 2-6 weeks. This stage is accompanied by a latent period of several years. During that period found no clinical manifestations, but the body of a small number of patients with ongoing processes that lead to forms of syphilis which is heavier tertiary syphilis.