But when excess cholesterol in the body will be buried within the walls of blood vessels, and cause a condition called atherosclerosis, the narrowing or hardening of the arteries. This condition is the potential for heart disease and stroke.
Element consists of fat in the blood cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids. Only a quarter of the cholesterol contained in the blood are derived directly from the digestive tract is absorbed from food, the rest is the body's own production by liver cells. Fat contained in food will be elaborated into cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids when digested in the gut. The fourth element of this fat will be absorbed from the intestine and into the blood. Cholesterol and other fatty substance does not dissolve in the blood. In order to be transported in the bloodstream, cholesterol along with other lipids (triglycerides and phospholipids) must be bound with proteins to form an insoluble compound and called lipoprotein
Chylomicrons that transport is liprotein fat to the liver. In the liver, fat ties are discussed in order to establish the four elements of fat and fatty acids that form will be used as an energy source, or if the amount of excess will be stored in fatty tissue. If supply is insufficient cholesterol, liver cells will produce it. Of the liver, cholesterol is transported by a lipoprotein called LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) to be brought to the cell body requires, including the heart muscle cells, brain and others in order to function properly. Excess cholesterol will be transported back by a lipoprotein called HDL (High Density Lipoprotein) to take precautionary, and then be thrown into the gallbladder as an acid (liquid) bile.
LDL contains more fat than the LDL so that it will float in the blood. The main proteins that form the LDL-Apo B (apolipoprotein-B). LDL is considered as the fats are "bad" cholesterol because it can cause the attachment of blood vessel wall. In contrast HDL is called good fats because of the operation it clears excess cholesterol from the blood vessel walls with transport back to the liver. The main proteins that make up HDL are Apo-A (apolipoprotein). This HDL has less fat and have high density or heavier.
The cause of cholesterol clogging the blood vessels.Excessive cholesterol in the blood will be easily attached to the inner wall of the blood vessels. Furthermore, the LDL will penetrate the walls of blood vessels through the endothelial cell layer, into the lining of blood vessels in the intima more. The smaller size of LDL or the higher the density, the easier it is to infiltrate into the LDL Iintima. LDL is called small dense LDL. LDL that has infiltrated into the intima will oxidize to form the first phase of oxidized LDL. Oxidized LDL would stimulate the formation of substances that can be attached and attract monocytes (a type of white blood cells) through the endothelial layer and into the intima. Besides, oxidized LDL also produce substances that can change the monocytes that have entered into the intima into macrophages. Meanwhile, oxidized LDL oxidation second stage will be the oxidized LDL that can perfectly convert macrophages into foam cells. Foam cells that formed would bond together to form clumps that grew large so as to form lumps that cause constriction of blood vessel lumen. This situation will worsen due to oxidized LDL perfect will also stimulate muscle cells lining blood vessels in the deeper (media) to get into the intima layer and will then divide that number is growing.
High cholesterol levels need to watch out for is the forerunner of the blockage of blood vessels, even more so when the rise is LDL cholesterol, known as the fat "bad". If we look at the mechanism of formation of blood vessels above the blockage, the more dangerous LDL has a small size with high density or what is known as small dense LDL.