Insects have a similar prevalence worldwide. Can occur in a particular climate and it is also a seasonal phenomenon, although it is possible these events may occur around us. Prevalence was similar among men and women. Babies and children are more susceptible to insect bites than adults. One of the factors that influence the onset of the disease that occurs in places that many insects, such as in plantations, rice fields, and others.
In simple insect bites are divided into two groups, namely Venomous (poisonous) and Non Venomous (not poisonous). Insects are usually attacked by poisonous stings, for example bees, it is a defense mechanism that is a way to inject toxins or through a stinging. While the insects are not poisonous bite and penetrate into the skin and sucking blood, which is usually itchy.
Insect bites will cause minor damage to the skin, through the bite, which will go direct antigen response by the body's immune system. The venom of the insect contain complex substances. Reaction to the antigen will typically release of histamine, serotonin, formic acid or kinin. Lesions that arise due to the body's immune response to antigens produced through insect bites. Reactions that occur involving the immune mechanism. Reactions that occur can be divided into 2 groups: immediate reactions and delayed reactions.
Immediate reaction is a common reaction and the reaction is characterized by local or systemic reactions. Lesions may also arise because of the toxin produced by insect bites or stings. Broader tissue necrosis can be caused by endothelial injury mediated by neutrophil release. Spingomyelinase D is a toxin that plays a role in the onset of the reaction neutrofilik. Hyaluronidase enzyme is also present in insect venom will damage the dermis layer so as to accelerate the spread of the toxin.
Many types of insect species that bite humans. Local reactions are usually in the form of papular urticaria can appear. Papular urticaria can also be directly lost or settled, usually accompanied by itching, and lesions appear to be gathered and spread on the skin. Papular urticaria can occur in all parts of the body or limited to only appear around the bite area. At first, there are very itchy feeling around the bite area and then comes the papule. Papule which had excoriation can occur and will be prurigo nodularis. Vesicles and bulla may appear to resemble pemphigoid bullosa, because the clinical manifestations that occur also depends on the immune system response of each patient. Secondary infection is a common complication that manifests as folliculitis, cellulitis or lymphangitis.
In some people are sensitive to insect stings can arise occurrence of an allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis. Anaphylactic shock is usually caused due to Hymenoptera stings insect groups, but did not rule out going to other insect stings. This reaction will lead to swelling of the face, difficulty breathing, and the appearance of spots that itch (urticaria) on almost the entire surface of the body. The prevalence of severe reactions caused by insect stings was approximately 0.4%, there are 40 deaths annually in the United States. These reactions usually begin 2 to 60 minutes after the sting. And a more severe reaction can lead to shock and can cause loss of consciousness and eventually death. necessitating rapid handling of this reaction.