The time required to effect somatic symptoms sightings vary so as to distinguish the effects of immediate and delayed effects. Immediate effect is that the damage can already be observed clinically in individuals within a short time after the individual is exposed to radiation, such as epilation (hair loss), erythema (red skin), burns, and blood cell count decreased. Damage is seen within days to weekly after irradiation. While the effect is delayed effects of radiation emerging after a long time (monthly / yearly) after exposure to radiation, such as cataracts and cancer.
When viewed from the radiation dose (for the benefit of radiation protection), the effect of radiation is divided based on deterministic effects and stochastic effects. Deterministic effects are effects caused by cell death due to radiation exposure, while the stochastic effects are effects that occur as a result of radiation exposure dose that causes changes in the cell.
Deterministic effects (non-stochastic effects) This effect is due to the process of cell death caused by exposure to radiation that alter the function of tissue exposed to radiation. This effect can occur as a result of radiation exposure to the whole body or local. Deterministic effects occur when the dose received over a threshold dose (threshold dose) and usually occurs some time after exposure to radiation. The severity of deterministic effects will increase when the dose received is greater than the threshold dose varies depending on the type of effect. At the lower dose and approached the threshold dose, the possibility of deterministic effects is thus zero. While above the threshold dose, the chances of this effect to 100%.
Stochastic effects of radiation dose as low as anything there is always the possibility to bring about changes in biological systems, both at the level of molecules and cells. Thus, radiation can kill cells but did not alter the cells Cells that are modified or transformed cells has a chance to escape from the immune system that seeks to eliminate these cells. All due process of modification or transformation of cells is called stochastic effects that occur randomly. Stochastic effects occur with no dose threshold and would occur after a long latency period. The greater the exposure dose, the greater the chance of stochastic effects, while the severity is not determined by the number of doses received. When the cells undergoing cell change is genetic, then the properties of the new cells will be passed on to its descendants causing genetic effects or inheritance. If these cells are somatic cells the cells are in a relatively long period of time, coupled with the effects of the ingredients that are toxic others, will grow and develop into malignant or cancerous tissue. Exposure to low doses of radiation can increase the risk of cancer and the effects are statistically significant inheritance could be detected in a population, but not necessarily related to individual exposure.