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Herbs to Treat Wound/Injury

Injured is the destruction of the unity / network components, specifically where there is substance which is damaged or missing tissue. When injuries arise, some effects will appear:
  • The loss of all or part of the function of organs
  • Sympathetic stress response
  • Bleeding and blood clots
  • Bacterial contamination
  • Cell death

Mechanism of injury:

  • Incision (Incised Wounds)
Occurred because cut by a sharp instrument. Suppose that occur due to surgery. Wound clean (aseptic) normally closed by suture after all the blood vessels are injured tied (ligation)
  • Bruise (contusion Wound),
Occurs due to impact by a pressure and characterized by soft tissue injury, bleeding and swelling.
  • Abrasions (Abraded Wound),
Skin due to rubbing against other objects usually with no sharp objects.
  • Stab wound (punctured Wound),
The result of objects, such as a bullet or knife into the skin with a small diameter.
  • Laceration (Lacerated Wound),
Caused by sharp objects such as glass or by wire.
  • Penetrating injuries (Penetrating Wound),
wounds that penetrate the body organs usually at the beginning of the entry wound diameter is small but in the end wound usually will widen.
  • Burns (combustio)

According to the level of contamination of the wound:

  • Clean Wounds (clean wounds),
That uninfected surgical wound in which no inflammation process (inflammation) and infections of the respiratory system, gastrointestinal, genital and urinary did not happen. Clean cuts usually produce a closed wound, and if necessary put a closed drainage (eg; Jackson - Pratt). The possibility of wound infection around 1% - 5%.
  • Clean-contamined Wounds (clean contaminated wounds),
Is a surgery where the wound respiratory, digestive, genital or urinary under controlled conditions, contamination is not always the case, the possibility of wound infection is 3% - 11%.
  • Contamined Wounds (Wound contamination),
Including open wounds, fresh, accidental injuries and major damage to the operation of the aseptic technique or contamination from the gastrointestinal tract: in this category also includes incision acute, inflammatory nonpurulen. The possibility of wound infection 10% - 17%.
  • Dirty or Infected Wounds (dirty wounds or infections),
Namely the presence of microorganisms in wounds.

Based on the depth and extent of injury, divided into:

  • Stage I: Wound superficial "Non-blanching Erithema"
That injury that occurs in the epidermis layer of the skin.
  • Stage II: Wounds "Partial Thickness"
Namely the loss of the epidermis skin layer and the upper part of the dermis. Is a superficial wound and the presence of clinical signs such as abrasion, blister or shallow holes.
  • Stage III: Wounds "Full Thickness"
Which covers the whole skin loss damage or necrosis of subcutaneous tissue that may extend to the bottom but not through the underlying network. The wound to the epidermis, dermis and fascia but not the muscle. Injuries arise clinically as a deep hole with or without damaging the surrounding tissue.
  • Stage IV: Wounds "Full Thickness"
Who have reached the layer of muscles, tendons and bones with the destruction / damage extensive.

According to the wound healing time is divided into:

  • Acute Wounds
That wound healing period in accordance with the concept of healing that has been agreed upon.
  • Chronic Wounds
That wounds that have failed in the healing process, it can be due to exogenous and endogenous factors.

The healing process includes several phases:

  • Phase Inflammation
Inflammatory phase is the presence of vascular and cellular responses that occur due to injury that occurs in soft tissue. Goals to be achieved is to stop the bleeding and clean the wound area from foreign matter, dead cells and bacteria to prepare for the start of the healing process. At the beginning of this phase will cause damage to the blood vessels that serve as the release of platelet hemostasis. Platelets will cover the open vascular (clot) and also issued a "substance vasoconstriction" capillaries causing vasoconstriction. Furthermore, endothelial attachment happens to be close blood vessels. This period lasted 5-10 minutes and after that it will happen capillary vasodilation due to stimulation of sensory nerves (Local sensory nerve endding), local reflex action and a vasodilator substance (histamine, bradykinin, serotonin and cytokines). Histamine also causes increased permeability of the vein, so that the liquid blood plasma out of the blood vessels and into the injured area and clinically happen tissue edema and circumstances into acidosis. Clinically it is characterized by inflammatory phase: erythema, warm to the skin, edema and pain that lasted until day 3 or day 4.
  • Proliferative Phase
The process of cellular activities that are important in this phase is to improve and heal wounds and is characterized by cell proliferation. The role of fibroblasts are very big on refinement process that is responsible for the preparation of produce protein structures that will be used during reonstruksi network.
In the normal soft tissue (without injury), exposure fibroblasts are very rare and usually hide in supporting tissue matrix. After the event of injury, activated fibroblasts will move from the tissue around the wound into the wound area, then it will evolve (proliferation) and secrete some substance (collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, fibronectin and proteoglycans) that play a role in building (reconstruction) the new network. More specific functions of collagen is formed the embryo of new tissue (connective tissue matrix) and the issuance of the substrate by the fibroblasts, providing indication that macrophages, new blood vessels and fibroblasts as well as an integrated unit to enter the wound. A number of cells and new blood vessels are embedded in the new network is called the network "granulation". Proliferative phase ends if the epithelial layer of the dermis and collagen has been formed, visible contraction process and will be accelerated by various growth factors formed by macrophages and platelets.
  • Phase maturation
This phase began at week 3 after injury and ended up about 12 months. The purpose of this phase is maturation; enhance the formation of new tissue into a powerful healing and tissue quality. Fibroblasts already started to leave the granulation tissue, redness of jaringa waning because vessels from regression of collagen and fibrin fibers multiply to strengthen scar tissue. The strength of the scar tissue will peak at week 10 after injury. To achieve optimal healing necessary balance between collagen produced by solved. Excessive collagen will happen hypertrophic scarring or thickening of the scar, whereas the reduced production will decrease scar tissue and wound strength will always be open.

Wounds heal in the event said continuity layers of skin and scarring force capable or do not bother to do normal activities. Although the wound healing process the same for every patient, but the outcome or the result achieved is highly dependent on the biological condition of each individual, the location and extent of injuries. Patients young and healthy will achieve rapid process compared with malnutrition, accompanied systemic disease (diabetes mielitus).

Factors affecting wound healing:

  • Age
The older a person it will reduce the ability of tissue healing
  • Infection
Infections are not only inhibit the wound healing process but can also cause damage to the supporting tissues, so it will increase the size of the wound itself, both the length and depth of the wound.
  • Hypovolemia
Lack of blood volume would result in vasoconstriction and decreased availability of oxygen and nutrients for healing wounds.
  • Hematoma
Hematoma is a blood clot. Often the blood in the wound is gradually absorbed by the body into circulation. But if there is a large clot that needs time to be absorbed by the body, thus inhibiting the process of wound healing.
  • Foreign body
Foreign matter such as sand or microorganisms will lead to the formation of an abscess before it is removed. This abscess arising from serum, fibrin, dead tissue cells and leukocytes (red blood cells), which form a thick liquid called pus.
  • Ischemia
Ischemia is a condition in which there is a decrease in blood supply to part of the body due to obstruction of blood flow. This can be the result of a bandage on the wound too tight. It can also occur due to internal factors, namely the existence of an obstruction in the blood vessel itself.
  • Diabetes
Barriers towards insulin secretion will lead to increased blood sugar, nutrients can not enter the cells. As a result it will also decrease the body's protein-calorie.
  • Treatment
  1. Steroids: mechanisms will decrease the body's normal inflammatory response to injury
  2. Anticoagulants: causing bleeding
  3. Antibiotics: Effective administered immediately before surgery for specific bacteria that cause contamination. If given after the surgical wound is closed, will not be effective due to intravascular coagulation.

There are some herbs that can be used to heal wound/injury, among other things:

The leaves of the Star of Bethlehem - lsotoma longiflora Presi refined. Stick it on the wound and covered with a clean cloth. Replace 2-3 times a day. The treatment is only done in an emergency.
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