according to the type and direction of the fracture line. Fractures can occur if exposed bone stress greater than can be absorbed.
Classification of fractures:Fractures can be classified as follows:
1. Based on the spot (Fracture humerus, tibia, clavicula, and cruris etc.).
2. Based on extensive and the fracture line consists of:
- Complete fracture (fracture lines through the entire cross-section through both cortical bone or bone).
- Incomplete fracture (broken line if the line does not go through the entire cross section of the bone).
3. Based on the shape and number of broken lines:
- Kominit fracture (broken line more than one and interconnected).
- Segmental fracture (broken line more than one but not related).
- Multiple Fractures (broken line but more than one place at a different bone, such as fractures of the humerus, femur fractures, and so on).
4. Based on the position of the fragment:
- Undisplaced (not shifting) / line fracture fragments are not complete but the second shift.
- Displaced (shift) / fracture fragments shift
5. Based on fracture relationships with the outside world:
- Open (any skin injury).
6. Based on the form of the fracture line and the relationship with the trauma mechanism:
- Transverse broken lines.
- Oblique / slant.
- Spiral / circling the bones.
- Avulsion / trauma pull or muscle insertions insertion. example: on the patella.
7. Based on the position of the bones:
- The absence of dislocation.
- The presence of dislocations: At Axim (at an angle), At lotus (bone fragments apart), At longitudinal (lengthwise apart), At lotus cum contractiosnum (apart and shortened).
Causes of fracturesAccording to Apley and Salomon (1995), are relatively brittle bones, but enough has
strength to withstand the pressure of the spring force.
Fractures can be caused by:
- Injuries and impacts, such as a direct blow, the force crushing, sudden twisting motion,
- extreme muscle contraction.
- Weary muscles can not absorb energy like walking too far.
- Bone weakness from cancer or osteoporosis, pathologic fracture.
Pathophysiological of fracture:Fracture consists of several types, including:
- Complete fracture is a broken bone in the midline and usually experience
- Incomplete fracture, broken only happens on some of midline bones.
- Closed fracture (simple fracture), does not cause skin tears.
- Open fracture (fracture complicated / complex), a fracture with a wound in the skin or mucous membrane to bone fracture. Open fractures was graded into: Grade I with clean cuts of less than 1 cm in length and obviously sick, injured more spacious Grade II without extensive soft tissue damage and Grade III, a highly contaminated and damaged soft tissue extension, is the most severe.