Diphtheria is transmitted through contact with patients or career droplet way. Vomit can be a means of transmission (vehicles of transmission). Skin diphtheria, although rare, have an important role in epidemiological.
Diphtheria is widespread throughout the world. The incidence decreased significantly after World War II, after the use of diphtheria toxoid. Similarly, there is a reduction in mortality ranged from 5-10%. Socio-economic factors, overcrowding, poor nutrition, lack of health facilities is an important factor for this disease.
Symptoms and signs of DiphtheriaNasal diphtheria
- Resembles a common cold with a mild cold symptoms without or with mild systemic symptoms.
- Serosanguinous nasal secretions and then gradually become mukopurulen cause blisters on the nares and upper lip.
- White membrane on the septum nasi region.
- Anorexia, malaise, mild fever, and painful swallowing.
- Within 1-2 days later arise membrane attached, white and gray can close tonsil pharyngeal wall, extending to the uvula and soft palate or down to the larynx and trachea, which bleed easily.
- Cervical and submandibular lymphadenitis, lymphadenitis occurs when soft tissue edema along with a wide neck, arising bullneck.
- In severe cases, respiratory failure can occur.
- Soft palate paralysis can occur, either uni or bilateral, with difficulty swallowing and regurgitation.
- Clinical symptoms difficult to distinguish from other types of infectious croups like a wheezing sound, progressive stridor, hoarseness, and dry cough
- If there is an extension of the pharyngeal diphtheria symptoms appear is a mixture of obstructive symptoms and toxemia.
- Diphtheria skin, vulvovaginal, conjunctiva, and ears.
DiagnosisDiphtheria Diagnosis is made by history and physical examination. Determination of diphtheria germs with immediate preparation unreliable. A more accurate way is by identifying with flourescent antibody technique. Definitive diagnosis is by isolation of C. diphtheriae by culture on Loeffler medium.
PreventionTransplacental passive immunity acquired from the mother is immune to diphtheria to 6 months or injection of antitoxin that persist for 2-3 weeks. Active immunity obtained after suffering an apparent or inapparent active infection and immunization diphtheria toxoid.
There are some herbs that can be used to treat diphtheria, among others:
- 10-20 grams of leaves and flowers of leucas lavandulifolia Smith, washed and cut small. Boil with 2 cups water until the remaining 1 1/2 cups. After chilling filtered, is used to rinse the mouth and throat for 2-3 minutes, and then discarded.
- 1 piece of dried Areca palm - Areca catechu L of mashed, brewed with 3/4 cup hot water and add 1 tablespoon of honey. Once cool, use water to rinse the throat for 2-3 minutes. Do it 3 times a day.