Zingiber zerumbet (L.) J. E. Smith including low to high herbaceous, perennial, native stem form rhizomes under the ground, more than 1 m high. A collection of pseudo-stem alternate leaf midrib, on the ground, several rods colonizers, green, creeping, fleshy, meaty, aromatic. Single leaf, seated alternate, midrib forming pseudo stem, strands in the middle or above the middle, length 3-7 times width, base, pointed or blunt, tapered ends, hairy on the upper surface, the veins or at the base, 14-40 x 3 -8.5 cm, hairy stalks, 4-5 mm. Aloe leaves erect, blunt, like membrane, 1.5 to 3 cm haired. Flower arrangement compound, spherical or elongated, appeared on the ground, erect, smooth-haired, slender, thick, 9-31 cm. 1.5 to 1.6 times the width, the tip slightly rounded and wide, flat leaves with tip protector, size 1.54 x 1.54 cm. Leaves protective greater than the petals, as long as the tube crown. Grain size from 3.5 to 10.5 x 1.75 to 5.5 cm. Petals: 13-17 mm. Petals bright yellow, dark green, or white, tube 2-3 cm, tapered or pointed ends, the greatest posterior corolla 1.5 to 2.5 x 1-2 cm. Stamens: anthers elongated round, bright yellow, 8-10 mm, 7 mm connector. Pistil: ovary 3 space, axillary position, stigma stalk forked. Fruit: inverted oval, red, 12 x 8 mm. Seed: elongated round, an average of 4 mm. Flowering Time: January to April. Regional distribution, Habitat and Cultivation Plants can be found in tropical Asia, growing wild in the jungle terrain with altitude up to 1200 m asl.
The composition of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) J. E. Smith:Rhizome: curcumin, a yellow pigment; beside it also found 3 ", 4"-diasetilafzelin (have a cytotoxic effect). Essential oils from the rhizome consists of sineol, dipenten, limonene, kariofilen, arkurkumen, kariofilenoksid, humulenepoksid I, II, III,-humulenol I, II; heksahidrohumulenol II, heksahidro humulenon, zerumbonoksid; kamfen (16%), humulen (17%) ; zerumbon (36%). On the other RAS found mirsen (22%), a-terpineol (45%), and the y-terpinen (10%).
Curable Disease with Zingiber zerumbet (L.) J. E. Smith:Typical properties: neutralize and cleanse the blood. efficacy: analgesics and stimulants. Biological and Pharmacological Effects: Rhizome: studies results obtained information that Zingiber zerumbet (L.) J. E. Smith can inhibit intestinal peristalsis rabbit. Extract from the rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) J. E. Smith is soluble in ethanol at a dose of 1.35% g / kg and 2 g / kg diuretic effect, and affect sleep. At the level of 0.46% v / v in water as antelmintik effect on Ascaris summ; 0.2 mI activity of essential oils of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) J. E. Smith is proportional to 1 mg mebendazol. Ester 4-methoxy cinnamic acid toxic effect against fungi and 3 ", 4"-diasetllafzelin toxic effect on cells; besides furanogermenon groups including compounds toxic to the larvae of Spodoptera littoralis. Other studies of the effect of infusion of the rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) J. E. Smith on the isolated rabbit jejunum. From this research, it has the effect of reducing the rhizome infusion jejunal contraction.
Several studies in Japan found that an extract of the rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) J. E. Smith was able to suppress the growth of melanoma cells in mice experiments. Suppressive effect (inhibitor) is known to occur through inhibition of the tyrosinase gene expression in melanoma cells.