When a person consumes alcohol, the liquid will be absorbed into the bloodstream. This will affect the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), which controls virtually all body functions.
Alcohol metabolism occurs primarily in the liver. When taken in low doses, alcohol is broken down by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase to acetaldehyde (almost 95% of ethanol in the body will be oxidized to acetaldehyde and acetate, while the remaining 5% will be excreted with urine). These enzymes require zinc (Zn) as a catalyst. Acetaldehyde is then converted to acetyl CoA, the enzyme dehydrogenase. Both reaction requires the coenzyme NAD. H ions are formed, bound by NAD and NADH formed. Acetyl CoA then enters tricarbocilic acid cycle (TCA), which then produces NADH, FADH2, and GTP are used to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a high-energy compound that acts as an energy reserve which is engaged in the cell. But if you drink a lot of alcohol, insufficient dehydrogenase enzymes to metabolize alcohol to acetaldehyde whole. As a replacement heart system uses another enzyme called Microsomal Ethanol Oxidizng System (Meos).
Resulting from the breakdown of acetaldehyde by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase, and interact again with alcohol, will produce a compound arrangement approaching morphine, can cause people to become addicted to alcohol or alcoholic.
Alcohol is a depressant that slows down the central nervous system function. These substances can inhibit some of the messages that should be conveyed to the brain. Because there are obstacles, it could change perceptions, emotions, movement, vision and hearing.
In a very small amount of alcohol can help a person feel more relaxed and reduce anxiety. However, if excessive amounts can lead to large changes in the brain, resulting in intoxication.
Symptoms that arise when having intoxication is staggering, loss of coordination and not aware of the words. Sometimes it also makes people confused or disoriented. People who are drunk thinks that he can move well, but the reality is not like that, and out of character of the person. Reactions arising depends on each person, in some people the effects can appear very friendly or very aggressive and angry. If a lot of consumption of alcohol in a short time, then the effect could be much faster which is characterized by vomiting. For extreme cases are fainting, shortness of breath, low blood sugar, seizures and even death can result. Nervous system changes that come from alcohol can make a person do something stupid or embarrassing. Because disorders of the nervous system that makes a person intoxicated when consuming alcohol.
Intoxication level is influenced by:
- Types and levels of alcohol you drink.
- The amount of alcohol you drink.
- The state of the stomach and intestinal mucosa.
- The amount of water content in the body.
- Body weight
- The habit.