The nose is a cavity that has lots of blood vessels. On the front cavity, precisely the septum that divides the nose into two cavities, are woven blood vessels called kiesselbach plexus. At the back of the cavity there are also many branches of blood vessels large enough among other sphenopalatine artery.
Pathophysiology of epistaxis (nosebleeds)Nasal cavity gets the blood flow from branches of the internal maxillary artery is the major palatine artery and arterial sfenopalatina. The front nose got bleeding from the facial artery. The front of the septum there anastomosis (combined) of the arterial branches sfenopalatina, etmoid anterior artery, superior labial artery and major palatine artery called plexus kiesselbach (little's area). If the blood vessel is injured or damaged, the blood will flow out through two avenues, namely through the front through the nostrils, and through the back entrance to the throat.
Epistaxis (nosebleeds) is divided into 2, namely:
- Anterior epistaxis (Front)
Anterior epistaxis is usually characterized by bleeding through the nostrils, either through one or both nostrils. Rarely bleeding out through the back of the head to the throat, unless the victim on his back or looked up.
- Posterior epistaxis (Rear)
Bleeding in posterior epistaxis is usually more severe because the injury was suffered considerable blood vessels. Being situated at the back, the blood tends to fall into the throat and then swallowed into the stomach, causing nausea and vomiting of blood.
The cause of epistaxis (nosebleeds) include:
- Tumors, both nasal and sinus tumors are benign and malignant.
- Idiopathic epistaxis is 85% of cases, usually mild and recurrent in children and adolescents
- Irritant gases or chemicals that stimulate or hot air in the nasal mucosa;
- The environment was very cold
- Living in an area of high atmospheric pressure or changes suddenly
- Latrogenik from surgery
- The use of long-term steroid nasal spray
- Foreign body or rinolit with mild unilateral epistaxis complaints clsertai Snot stink.
- Hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases such as arteriosclerosis. Hypertension with or without arteriosclerosis rnerupakan common cause of epistaxis at the age of 60-70 years, recurrent bleeding is usually severe and have a poor prognosis,
- A bleeding disorder such as leukemia, hemophilia, thrombocytopenia, etc..
- Infections, such as dengue fever accompanied trornbositopenia, morbili, typhoid fever, etc..
Principles help epistaxis (nosebleeds):
- Provide patients with a sitting down position to prevent blood accumulate in the posterior pharynx, preventing blockage of the airway.
- Stop the bleeding epistaxis. Stop the bleeding in epistaxis we can do by the way: tap on the front of the nose for 10 minutes, press your nose between your thumb and forefinger, if bleeding stops remain calm and try to find out what the trigger factors and avoid epistaxis
There are some herbs that can be used to treat epistaxis (nosebleeds), among other things:
- 60 grams of Centella asiatica, (Linn), Urban. Boiled with 400cc off water to boil and the remaining half. Drink boiled water, drink 2 times a day.
- 60 grams of the root of Cogon Grass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.). Boiled with 400cc off water to boil and the remaining half. Drink boiled water, drink 2 times a day.