Do you know? Urine has more than 3000 chemical compounds
After spending seven years, then researchers can detect as few as 3,079 chemical compounds in human urine. Compound 72 ' made of ' bacteria, while 1,453 compounds derived from the human body itself. 2,282 other compounds derived from foods, drugs, cosmetics or environmental exposure ( even some compounds classified into more than one group of compounds ).
"Urine is an extraordinarily complex biofluid. Were so many we probably never thought there are so many compounds that go into our toilet," said researcher David Wishart, professor of biology and computer science from the University of Alberta as reported by LiveScience.
Overall metabolites present in human urine can be detected using a cutting-edge technology, which has now been placed in a public online database called the urine metabolome database. The word 'metabolome' itself refers to the collection of complete metabolite database held in the form of all products produced in the body's metabolic processes, including hormones, vitamins, and other molecules.
According to investigators, the urine itself has long been a biofluid 'favorite' among scientists because it is sterile and can be obtained easily in large quantities. Even so, the complexity of the compound in the urine makes it so difficult to understand.
Because as one of the biological waste materials, urine usually fraction containing metabolic products of a variety of things ranging from food, beverages, pharmaceuticals, environmental contaminants, waste metabolites from the body to the byproduct of bacteria.
Compared with other body fluids such as saliva or cerebrospinal fluid, urine contains compounds 5-10 times more and show the diversity of chemical compounds is greater. Even the researchers noted in human urine contained 230 different classes of chemical compounds.
"And so far we only know there are 356 classes of chemical compounds that exist in the entire human metabolome. In other words, these findings show how much diversity of compounds found in the urine," says the researcher.
Not only that, the researcher claims to have found more than 480 chemical compounds in urine that were not found in the blood. This is contrary to the idea that during these scientists believe that the collection of chemical compounds in the urine is a part of the existing compounds in the blood.
Then how much urine can contain compounds that? "The fact is what makes it so unique, but it seems to have anything to do with the fact that the kidney has done a remarkable job in particular focus on blood metabolites (and put it in the urine)." concluded the researchers.
To find thousands of compounds, the researchers said they used a variety of techniques, including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography. Then the researchers analyzed urine samples from 22 healthy participants and learn the scientific literature on human urine for more than 100 years to support their findings.
Why is this finding is considered important? Researchers think the chemical composition of urine may be needed by doctors, nutritionists and environmentalists because it can reveal a variety of medical conditions, as well as information about what has been consumed by a person.
But Wishart warned this database is only early clues to determine the chemical composition of urine. "It could be that the database is the chemical composition of urine will be developed into new instruments and techniques to identify other compounds," he concluded.